Baumgarten’s most significant work, written in Latin, was Aesthetica, 2 vol. ( –58). The problems of aesthetics had been treated by others before Baumgarten . BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. Ästhetik Als Philosophie der Sinnlichen Erkenntnis Eine Interpretation der ” Aesthetica” A. G. Baumgartens Mit Teilweiser Wiedergabe des Lateinischen Textes.

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The word had been used differently since the time of the ancient Greeks to mean the ability to receive stimulation from one or more of the five bodily senses.

18th Century German Aesthetics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

However, since Baumgarten himself does not give as much emphasis to the emotional aspect of the experience of art in his Aesthetica as his earlier Meditations might lead us to expect, perhaps because it remained incomplete, we will return to Meier’s development of this theme only after we have considered Baumgarten’s mature work.

Lessing, like Mendelssohn born inwas the oldest of thirteen children of a Saxon pastor, and at twelve he entered the monastic school at Meissen; at seventeen he went to Leipzig to study theology, then changed to medicine, and then to the university at Wittenberg. Kant and Herder on Baumgarten’s Aesthetica. A world of external things ranged alongside one another is revealed in an instant. The premise of Herder’s argument is that aesthetic response is not the disinterested reaction of a special internal sense to purely formal properties of objects, but is really the heightened response of various of our senses to their appropriate objects.

For Kant, an aesthetic judgment is subjective in that it relates to the internal feeling of pleasure or displeasure and not to any qualities in an external object. The remaining conversations argue that the contemplation of the order of nature proves to us that its existence cannot have been a matter of chance, and that its beauty gives us palpable evidence of the wisdom and benevolence of its creator. Moreover, this complex of human mental powers is productive of pleasure, through the sensible representation of perfection, in its own right.

When he mentions or discusses specific arts, Wolff invokes more specific conceptions of perfection and thus of the beauties of those arts. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Edit this record Mark as duplicate Export citation Find it on Scholar Request removal from index Translate to english Revision history.

His conception of the mind has Leibnizian origins, but his emphasis on the pleasure of its unhindered activity points the way toward Kant’s conception of aesthetic experience as the free play of the cognitive powers.

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Nine years later, in his Critique of JudgmentKant conformed to Baumgarten’s new usage and employed the word aesthetic to mean the judgment of taste or the estimation of the beautiful. All works of art are visible imprints of the artist’s abilities which, so to speak, put his entire soul on display and make it known to us. The other alternative would be for the new aesthetic[s] to share the name with speculative philosophy.

In this way, the creative process of the world is mirrored in their own activity. This illustration would be decisive for Wolff and all of those whom he in turn influenced. Georg Friedrich Meier —who had been studying with Baumgarten, took over his classes and was himself appointed professor at Halle in Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Most of Herz’s publications arose from naumgarten medical and scientific practice, and included his Letters to Doctors in and ; Outline of All Medical Sciences inwhich was adopted as a textbook in Halle; a companion to his Berlin lectures on Experimental Physics ; an Essay on Dizziness in ; and a controversial essay On Early Burial among the Jews inin which he argued against the current practice among Jews of burial on the day of death on medical grounds, holding that death could not always be conclusively determined within such vaumgarten short period.

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18th Century German Aesthetics

Thus poetry may reach not only wider but also deeper than these other arts. In other baumgartenn, although judgments of taste are made on the basis of clear but indistinct concepts, which is to say sensory perceptions and feelings rather than clear and distinct concepts, they nevertheless.

Several points xesthetica this passage need comment. Baumgarten, Deleuze and the baumtarten Girl’ of Philosophy. Winckelmann spent his two years in Halle —40 while Baumgarten was still teaching there and Meier was also a student.

Thus those who desire happiness for themselves naturally desire it for others as well, and those who desire happiness in the form of the pleasure of aesthetic experience for themselves will naturally desire it for others as well. It seems to be a particular mark baugmarten beauty that we contemplate it with quiet satisfaction; that it baumgartne, even if we do not possess it, and that is remote from the urge to possess it. Leyla Haferkamp – – Deleuze and Guatarri Studies 4 1: In fact, Mendelssohn distinguishes between the fine arts and the beautiful sciences, or between beaux arts and belles aesstheticaon this basis: Pseudo Longino Il sublime Awsthetica.

After expounding the formal principles that are the basis of all truth, the principles of non-contradiction and sufficient reason, Wolff introduces the concept that is the substantive basis of his ontology, namely the concept of perfection. The passages from Sculpture also display what Herder thinks is the significance of the perception of the true form of objects through the tactile medium of sculpture: Sulzer clearly indicates that art has immediate value in its vivification of our sensory and cognitive powers as well as the value of its power to elevate our spirit and heart and thereby make morality efficacious for us.

Jean Gimpel, in Against Art and Artists, discusses the development of aesthetics by Baumgarten, and of course, does not see it positively. In he published the first edition of his Philosophical Writingsmostly on aesthetics, and in he took first place in a Prussian Academy of Sciences essay competition for an essay on Evidence in Metaphysical Sciencesbeating out the entry by Kant.

By using this site, aesthetia agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The same is true for two professional philosophers of the time who also worked within the Wolffian framework but took at least one step towards an aesthetic theory that could subsequently give the play of the mental powers equal importance with the sensible representation of truth by treating the aesthetic qualities of representations as parallel to rather than identical with their purely cognitive qualities. I should prefer that only those be called works of art in which the artist aestheetica occasion to show himself as such and in which beauty was his first and ultimate aim.

Like Herder, Sulzer recognizes that the variety of human tastes in both form and more substantial matters of morality means that different individuals and peoples will find both different external forms beautiful and different characters good, thus leading to differences in their ideals of beauty.

Bsumgarten second point is that the Greek aestheetica and way of life were conducive to the development of art. Aesthetics and Civil Society: Inbefore he turned twenty-six, Mendelssohn published Philosophical Dialogues on the model of Shaftesbury, On Sentimentsand, with Lessing, Pope, a Metaphysician! Mendelssohn’s explicit introduction of the concept of play here, finally, may be just as influential for the development of Kant’s aesthetics as is his insistence that the faculty of approval does not lead to actual knowledge or actual desire.

This definition enunciates a clear position on the ontological status of beauty, which will often be vexed in the eighteenth century.

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten | German philosopher |

This article has no associated abstract. Angelica Nuzzo – – Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 4: The two volumes cover just under a third of Baumgarten’s original plan, although they may have included the most original part of the plan. But he will argue that the exercise of various of our powers, baumgarteen as we are baumgarte to see bodily as well as mental powers, is itself a perfection that we enjoy, so this might at least point toward the idea that the source of pleasure in beauty is the free play of the those powers.

The fourth volume, a polemic against the now equally forgotten Friedrich Justus Riedel, who had published a hodgepodge Theory of the Fine Arts and Sciences: Aesthetic experience aestbetica a variety of free and unhindered activity of our representational capacity, and therefore produces pleasurable sentiments which are a primary constituent of happiness.

But his writing offers no evidence that he knew their works.